CWNA Certification Journey

I managed to get my CWNA certification today, this was my 2nd attempt. The first attempt was a failure a few months ago. Failed Attempt: 53% Passed Attempt: 82% Below are a few tips which I would like to share so that you get most for this certification. It would be quite beneficial if you…

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CWNA – Chapter 2 Summary & Exam Essentials

CWNA Chapter 2 – IEEE 802.11 Standards and Amendments. “Defined” means the amendment either no longer exists or it was rolled into the existing (or prior versions) 802.11-2007 spec. “Defines” means it is a ratified amendment that will be rolled into 802.11-2011. “Will define” means it is a work in progress and not yet amended….

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CWNA – Chapter 1 Summary & Exam Essentials

Overview of Wireless Standards, Organisations and Fundamentals. 4 Key organisations involved with wireless networking industry – FCC and other regulatory domains (ITU-R (ACMA (Australia)) (ARIB(Japan)) – FCC regulates communication from/to/within US. Both licensed and unlicensed communications are typically regulated in the following 5 areas  – Frequency, Bandwidth, Maximum power of the intentional radiator (IR),  Maximum…

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CWNA, Authentication & Encryption Types

Different Authentication types Open PSK 802.1X Open Authentication – There is no authentication (Free for all). Device connects to wireless network without any issue.  Open Authentication might also redirect to a captive portal like at a Airport or Public Wireless places. There is a two way packet exchange. It is not the secure way to setup…

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CWNA – CCK,DSSS, FHSS & OFDM

CCK – Complementary Code KeyingDSSS – Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum OFDM – Orthogonal Frequency Divisional MultiplexingFHSS – Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum There are various versions of WLAN standard developed to address different data rate and coverage requirements. IEEE 802.11b supports four data rates viz. 1 Mbps, 2 Mbps, 5.5 Mbps and 11 Mbps. – DSSS…

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CWNA , IEEE 802.11!

Hi IEEE 802.11 Key Concepts Let’s get started with the IEEE 802.11 Journey synopsis. Standards are defined at physical and mac-sub layer(data-link). We are referring to different ways of transmitting data over the air. Also how our communication signal would deliver information. One of the original ones we’ve come across is FHSS (Frequency Hopping Spread…

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Wave Length and Frequency Basics

Wave Length – is the distance between 2 successive crests (peaks). Commonly, lower frequency signal will travel farther than higher frequency. 2.4GHz – 4.82 inches (12.24 cms), 5GHz – 2.04 inches (5.19 cms) Frequency – Peaks of signal, seen over a period of time. Defined in Hertz. 1 Hz = 1 cycle p/s 1 KHz…

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CWNA : New Things Learnt today

Cinemas jamming mobile phone signals #cinemajammers The US’s National Association of Theater Owners wants the FCC’s permission to block mobile reception inside cinemas. To be honest I thought this already happened in some places… maybe I’d mentally linked it to office buildings with Faraday cage wall structures to prevent eavesdropping on wireless data transfer; I…

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