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Analyzing Frame Exchanges – #CWAP #Wireshark

This blog post will focus on certain aspects of Wireshark frames which can be brought to use for analyzing and troubleshooting Wi-Fi issues. I recommend downloading metageek color filters and apply it to your Wireshark for filtering specific frame types with applied colorization. You can read more about applying the color filters here. SSID/BSSID information. In Pcaps they can be […]

HT/VHT – #CWAP – Exam specific revision

CWAP-403 covers this topic under the 802.11 Frame Exchanges section. I’ve found this topic a bit hard to grasp. I have attempted to read the CWAP-403 study guide but honestly I could not get closer to fully grasp the topic. Much of the explanation in that book is direct copy/paste from standards documents. There is not much of attempt made […]

BSS Association, Transition & Security Exchanges #CWAP #Notes

This blog post features the chapter 5 from CWAP-403 book. I have tried to summarize it as I’ve read through the book. Hope this helps you in the journey to become CWAP-403 certified. I am still waiting to give my 2nd attempt hopefully be able to give once the COVID19 lock down is relaxed. I am aiming to revise the […]

CWAP Reference Guide so far… #CWAP12

I’ve tried to condense my notes from the study for CWAP-403 exam. The exam consists of lot of details which need to be learnt if you have not done enough capturing and analyzing 802.11 wireless frames before. CWAP 403 – Start > Introductory blog 802.11 Mac Header explained Key 802.11 Frames Troubleshooting WLAN issues #mindmap PHY Layer WLAN medium contention […]

Troubleshooting WLAN issues with 802.11 Frames – #CWAP9

I have pen down a some troubleshooting scenarios which I’ve come across while studying for CWAP exam. To begin with, Management Frames > Foundation of how wireless radios detect, join and operate on WLAN.Control Frames > Frames which control the delivery of Data frames. Data Frames > Carry actual data payload from/to layers 3-7. Some scenarios which frames can provide […]

How to capture WLAN Frames? #CWAP8

This blog post will focus on tools I’ve used for performing Wireless Frame Captures. I’ve been largely dependent on Macbook for capturing the wireless frames. I would highly suggest you for sourcing a Macbook for frame capture as Windows PC option involves getting a third party WLAN pcap which is not cheap. Thank you Apple for making it possible to […]

802.11 Frame Exchanges – Security #CWAP7

802.11 Frame Exchanges section account for 25% of syllabus for CWAP-403 exam. Potentially around 15 questions out of 60 in the exam can be expected from this section. This blog post focuses on the “security” component of 802.11 Frame Exchange. I will be focusing on other sections in the subsequent posts in the next week or two. Let’s begin! Authentication […]

WLAN Medium Contention – #CWAP6

Accounts for 10% of the CWAP knowledge domain areas, approx. 6/60 questions Medium Contention :Protocols that allow large number of devices to effectively share the wireless channel. All AP & STAs will contend with each other on a common transmission medium. CSMA / CA – The AP/STAs (802.11) use carrier sense multiple access with collision avoidance as opposed to collision […]

PHY Layer – CWAP#5

This chapter accounts for 10% of the Knowledge Domain in the CWAP exam. Approx. 6/60 questions! Exam Moment from the Book : It is not important, for the CWAP exam, that you know all the details of the variations of the PHY preambles; however, you should know that the preamble adds extra overhead to the communications and that older devices […]

Key 802.11 Frames – CWAP#3

This post covers the important 802.11 Frames which can help in performing the analysis and troubleshoot any issues related to WLAN networks. I have referenced Wireshark filters for the ease of each frame. Beacon (1000, Subtype : 8) (wlan.fc.type_subtype == 0x08) Used to announce the Basic Service Set (BSS) for the Client (STAs). Transmitted by AP every 100 time units.  […]