CWAP Reference Guide so far… #CWAP12

I’ve tried to condense my notes from the study for CWAP-403 exam. The exam consists of lot of details which need to be learnt if you have not done enough capturing and analyzing 802.11 wireless frames before. CWAP 403 – Start > Introductory blog 802.11 Mac Header explained Key 802.11 Frames Troubleshooting WLAN issues #mindmap…

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802.11ac and a bit of 802.11ax #CWAP11

This blog post will be focusing on 802.11ac in particular. We visited the aspects of 802.11n in the last blog post. 802.11ac introduced the VHT (Very High Throughput) along with some core technological advancement like MU-MIMO, 256 QAM addition & support for 80MHz/160MHz channels. One of the key differences also lie in the support of…

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802.11n | HT Operations #CWAP10

The blog post will cover the topics related to High Throughput Throughput technologies in conjunction with the exam objectives laid down for CWAP-403 exam. 802.11 Frame Exchanges cover 25% of the knowledge domain required for the exam. Analysing HT & VHT transmission methods are one of the sub topics under this section. I will be…

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Troubleshooting WLAN issues with 802.11 Frames – #CWAP9

I have pen down a some troubleshooting scenarios which I’ve come across while studying for CWAP exam. To begin with, Management Frames > Foundation of how wireless radios detect, join and operate on WLAN.Control Frames > Frames which control the delivery of Data frames. Data Frames > Carry actual data payload from/to layers 3-7. Some…

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How to capture WLAN Frames? #CWAP8

This blog post will focus on tools I’ve used for performing Wireless Frame Captures. I’ve been largely dependent on Macbook for capturing the wireless frames. I would highly suggest you for sourcing a Macbook for frame capture as Windows PC option involves getting a third party WLAN pcap which is not cheap. Thank you Apple…

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802.11 Frame Exchanges – Security #CWAP7

802.11 Frame Exchanges section account for 25% of syllabus for CWAP-403 exam. Potentially around 15 questions out of 60 in the exam can be expected from this section. This blog post focuses on the “security” component of 802.11 Frame Exchange. I will be focusing on other sections in the subsequent posts in the next week…

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WLAN Medium Contention – #CWAP6

Accounts for 10% of the CWAP knowledge domain areas, approx. 6/60 questions Medium Contention :Protocols that allow large number of devices to effectively share the wireless channel. All AP & STAs will contend with each other on a common transmission medium. CSMA / CA – The AP/STAs (802.11) use carrier sense multiple access with collision…

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PHY Layer – CWAP#5

This chapter accounts for 10% of the Knowledge Domain in the CWAP exam. Approx. 6/60 questions! Exam Moment from the Book : It is not important, for the CWAP exam, that you know all the details of the variations of the PHY preambles; however, you should know that the preamble adds extra overhead to the…

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Key 802.11 Frames – CWAP#3

This post covers the important 802.11 Frames which can help in performing the analysis and troubleshoot any issues related to WLAN networks. I have referenced Wireshark filters for the ease of each frame. Beacon (1000, Subtype : 8) (wlan.fc.type_subtype == 0x08) Used to announce the Basic Service Set (BSS) for the Client (STAs). Transmitted by…

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