Overview of Wireless Standards, Organisations and Fundamentals.
4 Key organisations involved with wireless networking industry
– FCC and other regulatory domains (ITU-R (ACMA (Australia)) (ARIB(Japan)) – FCC regulates communication from/to/within US. Both licensed and unlicensed communications are typically regulated in the following 5 areas
– Frequency, Bandwidth, Maximum power of the intentional radiator (IR), Maximum equivalent isotropically radiated power (EIRP), Use (indoor and/or outdoor), Spectrum sharing rules.
– IEEE – 802.11 working group is responsible for creating WLAN standard.
– IETF – International community of people whose goal is to make the internet work better.
– Wi-Fi Alliance – Global, non-profit organisation of more than 550 member companies devoted in making the wireless communication better. Its main task is to ensure interoperability of WLAN products by providing certification testing.
ISO – international Organisation for Standardisation.
OSI model – Open Systems Interconnection (APSTNDP)
Application Layer 7- WWW browsers, NFS, SNMP, Telnet, HTTP, FTP
Presentation Layer 6 – Include encryption, ASCII, TIFF, GIF, JPEG, MPEG, etc..
Session Layer 5 – NFS, NetBIOS names, RPC, SQL
Transport Layer 4 – TCP, UDP
Network Layer 3 – Provides switching and routing technologies, creates logical paths, known as virtual circuits.
Data Link Layer 2 -The MAC layer and the Logical link control (LLC) layer. IEEE 802.3, ATM, Frame Relay.
Physical Layer 1 – Cables, Ethernet, Fibre, etc.
The 802.11-2016 standard defines communication mechanism only at the Physical and the MAC sublayer of the Data-Link layer of the OSI model.
Simplex – Device is either capable of transmitting or receiving.
Half-Duplex- Capable of transmitting and receiving but not at the same time. Only 1 device can transmit at a time.
Full- Duplex – Capable of transmitting and receiving at the same time.
Radio Frequency Fundamentals
1. Amplitude – Height, force, or the power of the wave.
2. Wavelength – Distance between similar points on two back to back waves.
Frequency – Describes a behaviour of waves. How fast the wave travels, or more specifically how many waves are generated over a period of time, is known as frequency.
Phase – is a relative term. It is the relationship between 2 waves with the same frequency
Keying Methods – Some more explanation here.
1. Amplitude-Shift Keying
2. Frequency-Shift Keying
3. Phase-Shift Keying.
1. Know the 4 Industry Organisations
2. Understand core, distribution and access layer
3. Explain the difference between simplex, half-duplex, and full duplex.
4. Understand Wavelength, Frequency, Amplitude & Phase.
5. Keying Methods.